These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the style guide listed above, ask your course coordinator, or ask at .
Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.
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Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).
(Cunningham, Nikolai, & Bazley, 2004)
Goleman, D. (2009). What makes a leader? In D. Demers (Ed.), AHSC 230: Interpersonal communication and relationships (pp. 47-56). Montreal, Canada: Concordia University Bookstore. (Reprinted from Harvard Business Review, 76(6), pp.93-102, 1998).
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A Bibliography is a list of the books (or other sources of information) that you consulted when writing an essay, report, thesis or dissertation.
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The Harvard Referencing System is one of the preferred layouts for these references. It is a relatively strict way of arranging the bibliographical information.
The full title is used in the reference list:
When doing research, we very rarely come up with our own theories. These take time to develop, and involve putting them out for debate. By researching the theories of others, we include ideas in our works that have already gone through that academic testing.
If an online document has a DOI, use it instead of the URL address:
Guignon, C. B. (1998). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy (Vol. 3, pp. 493-502). London, England: Routledge.
Years of publication can be found in many places.
Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.