Among scholars, one of the most significant types of dedications is a festschrift. A festschrift is a collection of essays or studies in book form, dedicated to a former teacher or professor in his or her advanced age. The individual scholarly writings come from his or her students, who typically collaborate to organize the work and contact the publisher, and they present the collection to the teacher upon its publication.
DEDUCTUM CARMEN (Latin, "drawn-out song"): Ovid's term in Eclogue 6.3-5 for the type of poem he will create in his own poetry, in contrast with the older epic. He claims that a "modern" (i.e., imperial) poet of his day should not be writing epics, but instead should follow the example of Callimachus, in which the poem's narrative structure is drawn out in a manner akin to the way a thread is drawn outin spinning, so the story become a fine, tight thread pulled out of the original chaotic tangle of unprocessed wool (Feeney xxiii). This method contrasts with the epic, in which a single narrative focusing on kings and conquerors broadly dominates the entire poem.
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DVOYEVERIE (Russian, "double faith"): The confusion or mixture of pagan and Christian elements in medieval Russian folklore (Harkins 118).
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Many of those groups (such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Goths) left very little evidence behind in the way of complete mythologies, but in the Icelandic sagas and Old Norse tradition, we have extensive records of a mythology surrounding the Aesir and Vanir deities in the Poetic Edda. In these legends, the Germanic or Teutonic gods embodied in Old Norse were, as Tom Shippey states, "" (see Drout 449). Many 19th century scholars (and later Tolkien himself) explored whether this worldview was unique to the Norse, or whether it permeated the other branches of the Germanic tribes. Linguistic evidence suggested it did. For instance, the names of cognate deities appear in toponyms in Britain and continental Germany. Thus, the one-eyed all-father Odin in Old Norse has analogues in Woden in Anglo-Saxon and Wotan in pagan Germany, etc. On the other hand, the counter-argument was that similarities in names might not correspond with similarities in worldview. For example, just because Old English had the term Middan-Geard (Middle Earth), and Old Norse had Mithgarthr (Middle Earth), it does not necessarily follow that the Anglo-Saxons had an identical cosmology to the Vikings in which nine different worlds centered on the human one (See Shippey in Drout 449). Other evidence circumstantially was available in what the mythographers called "survivor-genres" (fairy tales, riddles, oral ballads, and nursery rhymes), and philologists argued that skilled investigators could recover or reconstruct missing parts of the lost mythoi from these later texts (449-450).
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DEMAND D'AMOUR (French, "demand of love"): A medieval motif common in French and continental courtly literature in which a hypothetical situation would appear as a "love-problem," and the listeners would attempt to resolve the issue through debate. Such debates may have been common in real-life medieval party-games or flirtations among the nobility before they became literary motifs. By the late medieval period, many collections of such hypothetical situations and accompanying questions had appeared, such as the Middle English Demaundes of Love. Chaucer's narrators in the Knight's Tale, the Franklin's Tale, and The Parliament of Fowels explicitly ask their audiences to make judgments of this sort at various points in the tale, and the marriage group as a whole in The Canterbury Tales implicitly asks the readers to explore what makes a happy marriage.
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DIME NOVEL: Cheap or sensationalist publications, especially the series begun by E. F. Beadle in 1860--consisting of reprints of thrilling tales, violent action, brief romance, and episodes from famous wars and dramatic historical periods such as the American Civil War or the Frontier period. These dime novels were usually paperbound and sold for 10 cents in the 1920s in America, hence the common nick-name (Shipley 169). The first major example was Ann Sophia's Stephens's Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter, which sold over 300,000 copies in 1860 and remained immensely popular for a decade. Other famous authors who produced dime novels included Edward L. Wheeler, who created "Deadwood Dick," and J. R. Coryell, who created "Nick Carter," a detective who appeared in over one thousand separate short stories written by a dozen ghost writers up through the 1960s (Holman 162). Also called a (for the cheap paper it was printed on), the dime novel as a mass market publication was the next generation of the earlier British "" of previous years.