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While by no means a survey of the literature in the field of leadership and diversity, in the above examples, we find the interests and the challenges that call forth attending to a more general theoretical approach that can integrate our comprehension of leadership and diversity. An integral framework offers a reasonable way to do this.

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—John Latané (1907) America as a World Power, 1897-1907, p. 255.

Effectively working with differences even goes beyond this. According to Davidson,

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Figure 1: An adaptation of Wilber’s Four Quadrant Map

Here we have the Upper Left quadrant represented by attitudes, values and beliefs; the Upper Right by behaviors, all of which arise dialogically through culture and systems in which diversity in its broadest sense is represented. It is comprehension such as their work represents that lays a foundation for a metatheoretical, including integral, scope of understanding. But where this analysis begins to more closely touch the world of integral theory is in the discussion of ethical and moral diversity. They point out the relationship between national identity, language and religion as common cultural traditions. So, in politics, “What this means, among other things, is that political power is supported, in part, by moral interpretations of the rights of leaders to lead” (176). They continue,

Integral Leadership with Diversity

There are two important implications to the diversity of morality and ethics. The first is that in our attempts to understand each other, we may be using a frame of reference which does not fit with that of others. The second is that we tend to react emotionally, usually with anger or dismay, when people appear to violate our sense of morality. As a consequence, we tend to treat them as immoral, and hence, as outsiders (177).

Benedict, R. (1934). Patterns and Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Our model assumes that the attitudes, values, beliefs, and hence, behaviors, of individuals are socially constructed within a context of group and intergroup relations and that people act through social, political, and economic institutions that create, embed, and reproduce the inequality among people which we then call diversity (164).

Center for Creative Leadership (2012). Accessed January 21 2012.

First, we discuss the management literature on diversity as it has been conceptualized so far, that is, the literature on interpersonal and intergroup interaction, combined with the practice oriented work on human resources and employment law. Then we discuss three other bodies of literature that are clearly relevant to diversity, but which have not typically been included in the diversity literature in management. These literatures include: recent management literature on organizational change which has significant implications for the study of diversity; literature from the social and behavioral sciences which is about diversity in a broad sense; and the literature on the ethics and morality of multiculturalism and diversity (163).