The early part of the 20th Century witnessed the rise of two new political philosophies: Communism and Fascism. Both rose from the ashes of World War I and were firmly established in Europe by 1933. Though they exposed different goals and relied on different motivations to gain support, both ultimately resulted in totalitarian dictatorships.
According to Eric Hobsbawm in his book Age of Extremes he says “The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October Revolution and Leninism in particular. Without these, there would have been no fascism, for though the demagogic Right-Wing Ultras had been politically vocal and aggressive in a number of European countries since the end of the 19th century, they had almost invariably been kept well under control before 1914”
An essay on the rise and fall of fascism in italy
By October, 1922, crisis and division within the central government had crippled its effectiveness. Mussolini demanded that the government be dissolved and a new government dominated by his party be formed. Prime Minister Luigi Facta refused. On October 28, 1922, Mussolini ordered the Black Shirts to march on Rome to “restore order and legality” to the government. Facta wanted to declare a state of siege and use the Army to crush the marchers, but he needed the authorization of the king. Italy’s aged king refused to authorize the action for fear it would start a civil war. Instead, the king met with Mussolini and asked him to form a new government with himself as Prime Minister, opening the door to Fascist control of Italy. Soon after the creation of the new government he demanded and received dictatorial power until the end of 1923.