According to Donald Marquis in his paper “Why Abortion is Immoral,” he argues killing a fetus is wrong because it deprives it of a “FLO,” or a future like ours.
I’m sure that being raped by someone in your family can bring on lots of stress & confusion, so it is completely understandable why most would get abortions under this circumstance....
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i. "The study found that 71 percent of 223 teen-age girls who became pregnant had discussed contraception with a health expert in the year before they became pregnant." Brian McGuire, "Sex Education Can Backfire, Says British Study," in the National Catholic Register, Vol. 76, No. 36, September 3-9, 2000, 1.
ii. See Stanley K. Henshaw and Kathryn Kost, "Abortion Patients in 1994-1995: Characteristics and Contraceptive Use," 28 Family Planning Perspectives 140, 145 (table 2) (1996).
iii. Janet E. Smith, "Paul VI as Prophet," in Why Humanae Vitae Was Right: A Reader, 523.
iv. Germain Grisez, Living a Christian Life (The Way of the Lord Jesus, Volume 2), (Quincy, Ill: Franciscan Press: 1993), 505.
v. Germain Grisez, Living a Christian Life, 515-516.
vi. John Paul II affirms that the difference between contraception and natural family planning is "both anthropological and moral," Familiaris Consortio, 32. Emphasis in original.
vii. John Paul II, Familiaris Consortio, 32.
viii. See Horacio B. Croxatto, et al., "Mechanism of action of hormonal preparations used for emergency contraception: a review of the literature," 63 Contraception 111-121 (2001); Chris Kahlenborn et al., "Postfertilization Effect of Hormonal Emergency Contraception," 36 The Annals of Pharmacology 465 (March 2002); John Wilks, "The Impact of the Pill on Implantation Factors – New Research Findings," 16 Ethics & Medicine 15-22 (2000); Keith L. Moore and T.V.N. Persaud, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 7th ed. (2003), 56; Walter L. Larimore and Joseph B. Stanford, "Postfertilization Effects of Oral Contraceptives and Their Relationship to Informed Consent," 9 Archives of Family Medicine 126-133 (2000).
ix. Susan Harlap, Kathryn Kost, and Jacqueline Darroch Forrest, Preventing Pregnancy, Protecting Health: A New Look at Birth Control Choices in the United States (New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1991), state that when not effective in some other way, intrauterine devices work "by initiating a local inflammatory response to a foreign body, which inhibits implantation should fertilization occur" (27), combined oral contraceptives "change the uterine lining to inhibit implantation should fertilization occur" (27), the progestin-only pill works by "inhibiting implantation" (28), contraceptive implants work by "inhibiting implantation of a fertilized ovum" (28), and progestin-only injectables work in ways "similar to those of the minipill and implants" (29). See Ashley and O'Rourke, Healthcare Ethics, 3rd ed., 278-79; Kristine M. Severyn, "Abortifacient Drugs and Devices: Medical and Moral Dilemmas," Linacre Quarterly 57 (Aug. 1990): 50-67; Rudolf Ehmann, "Problems in Family Planning," Anthropotes 7 (1991): 100-101. Quoted in Germain Grisez, Living a Christian Moral Life, 505.
x. See Paul VI, Humanae Vitae, 17.
xi. W. Bradford Wilcox, "The Facts of Life and Marriage: Social Science & the Vindication of Christian Moral Teaching," Touchstone, January-February 2005. As reprinted in Zenit Rassegna.
xii. Humanae Vitae, 14.
xiii. Ibid. The Catechism of the Catholic Church reiterates Paul VI's condemnation of all forms of contraception as intrinsically evil in number 2370.
xiv. Humanae Vitae, 12. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2336.
xv. John Paul II, Letter to Families, 1994, 23.
xvi. Joseph B. Stanford, M.D., "Sex Naturally," First Things 97 (November 1999), 28-33.
xvii. John Paul II, General Audience of November 14, 1979, in Theology of the Body (Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 1997), 46-47.
xviii. John Paul II, General Audience of January 2, 1980 in Ibid., 57.