Baron, Hans. In Search of Florentine Civic Humanism: Essays on the Transition from Medieval to Modern Thought. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Hans Baron (b. 1900–d. 1988) articulated a new interpretation of Renaissance humanism that he called “civic humanism.” According to Baron, humanism developed in two stages: in the 14th century it was scholarly and literary, and in the early 15th century it became civic. Petrarch (b. 1304–d. 1374) and his first followers knew and loved the classics but were literary men devoted to study and the contemplative life. Humanism became civic during the political crisis of 1402 as the Florentine Republic struggled for its existence against Milan, ruled by a duke. At this time, Florentine intellectuals, especially Leonardo Bruni (b. 1370–d. 1444), the chancellor of Florence, joined their classical scholarship to a defense of liberty. Civic humanism included a new understanding of history, an affirmation of the ethical value of the conditions of the civic life, and a new understanding of Cicero, the classical writer most admired by humanists. Civic humanism created the intellectual foundations for a transformation of Italian culture in the Renaissance and, ultimately, the modern world, in Baron’s view. and articulate the basic argument, while and add important elements.
John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1960, ..
Grendler, Paul F. “Georg Voigt: Historian of Humanism.” In Humanism and Creativity in the Renaissance: Essays in Honor of Ronald G. Witt. Edited by Christopher S. Celenza and Kenneth Gouwens, 295–325. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2006.
Free descriptive Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe
While both descriptive and narrative essays are similar in many ways, the descriptive essays use of language fully immerses the reader into the story and allows the reader to feel the intended emotion....
The C.G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology
After Hans Baron (see ), most scholars, especially in the English-speaking world, have accepted that there was a connection between humanism and politics. While humanism everywhere had as its base a knowledge and respect for classical texts as inspiration and models of deportment and learning, it took on different coloration and attitudes in different political and social settings. In Florence, major humanists filled the chancellorship, a high civil-service position; chancellors were both intellectual leaders and politically involved. , , , and study successive Florentine humanist chancellors, while and connect Florentine humanists and humanism to the city’s political and social context. presents the basic works of the most important Florentine chancellor, thus enabling the reader to judge the extent and nature of Leonardo Bruni’s conception of civic humanism.
Humanism vs. Atheism | Progressive Humanism
The humanist movement embraced the insights of many individual humanists, especially Italians, whose criticism of medieval culture and scholarship and bold pronouncements concerning man, classical studies, philosophy, history, and religion created Renaissance humanism. Italian humanists played the primary roles, which is reflected in the concentration on Italy in this article. Humanists elsewhere in Europe followed their lead and added their own insights, especially after the invention of printing accelerated the diffusion of ideas. Scholars have long recognized the contributions that individual humanists made, and some humanists have drawn a great deal of attention. The works in this section offer a sampling of studies on individual Italian humanists.
Shakespeare » Humanists UK
Valla (b. 1406/7–d. 1457) was an immensely important mid-15th-century humanist known for his iconoclastic views about medieval learning, rhetoric, dialectic, history, papal political claims, and his pioneering scholarship on the text of the New Testament. Although there is no comprehensive study of Valla in English, a special section in an issue of the , , provides an introduction, and has good relevant chapters. , , and are good studies in Italian. , , and provide English translations of some of his most important and controversial works. The ultimate iconoclast, Valla attacked traditional ideas in scholarship, history, and religion. Hence, modern scholars have paid considerable attention to his works and his influence.