Between 540 BCE and 535 BCE, Carthage and Etruria combined to fight Greek colonies where today’s is and on Corsica. , but it was a “victory” that ended their Corsican settlement. Etruscans ruled Rome in its early days. Around 509 BCE, Rome overthrew its monarchy, established its independence from Etruria, and formed what today is called a republic. It held a tension between the aristocratic ruling class () and the commoners (). Centuries concluded with the , and Etruscans were absorbed into Roman culture and disappeared as a people. Etruscan cities became Roman cities, and Etruria’s fate was a preview of the polyglot empire that Rome would become, as it absorbed conquered peoples.
Long Night's Journey into Day exposes some of the mechanisms of repression used by the apartheid system. It also lays bare why and how people resist oppression. While its locale is South Africa, it simultaneously helps explain some of the tensions and conflicts raging today amongst many people in the US.
A MESSAGE FROM THE FILMMAKERS by Frances Reid & Deborah Hoffman
Work: Over seven million US adults actively seeking jobs were unemployed in 1996, less than 5% of the eligible population; Black unemployment was nearly 9% while the White rate was barely 4%. In 1995, almost 20% of Black families earned incomes of less than $10,000. 6% of White families had incomes below $10,000.
28. Invent lyrical expressions for the image.
Many assumptions of neoclassical economics have been convincingly falsified by the physical, biological, and social sciences. Some of those assumptions are that people are independently minded rational actors who do not look to what others do (i.e., humans are not herd animals), that the economy can be divorced from the ecosystem that supports it, that money can substitute for , and that economic production can be described without referencing physical work. Neoclassical economics ignores the fact that entropy saps the efficiency of any system, economic or otherwise. Unlike a genuine science, almost no branches of today’s economics, particularly neoclassical economics, base their theories on hypotheses that can be tested and . Today’s mainstream economics resembles a faith more than a science.
31. Use images that evoke classical elegant separateness.(shubumi)
As Adam Smith’s invisible hand, fear, became an of classical economics, neoclassical economists greed in their curves. Greed and fear are thereby foundational principles in today’s economic theory, and as a salubrious and critical aspect of capitalism. How can an ideology that elevates, even celebrates, greed and fear be considered beneficial? The obsession with prices and money has also promoted an egocentric view of economic reality. Whenever people think of economics today, they generally only think in terms of money, as that is the medium of exchange by which individuals currently acquire the food, goods, and services that make their modern lives possible. Consequently, the real economy, which runs on matter and energy, not money, becomes demoted and even ignored while the magic of markets and money are worshipped. The financial economy is not real, but is an elaborate accounting fiction subject to . Theorists such as Marx put money in its proper place, as only accounting. Money-based economics is egocentric, in which the focus is on money and greed and everybody’s primary question is “What is in it for me?” That view is also disconnected from the real world.
33. Use images that evoke a mysterious aloneness.(Yugen)
John Rockefeller was a , and in 1887 he . The University of Chicago subsequently became the . By the 1870s, the science of energy had developed greatly from the previous century, when fire was thought to be caused by , but economics entered its from which it has yet to emerge. It competed with for much of the 20th century, and neoclassical economics reached its triumphant phase with the . Chicago School economists were the , but the school has recently been in the first decade of the 21st century.