Other significant articles include (1926) (1937), and (1940).

The authors report that this woman told her sister-in-law about her NDE, who happened to be a nurse who was called into the operating room at the time of the NDE. But the nurse was adamant that there was neither a letter nor a round table in the operating room.

Recommended Reading:Zedong Mao, , tr.

Sartori adds that the symbols were inconspicuously changed every two months and covered by a card removed away from her sight, "ensuring that not even the author knew which symbol was on which monitor" (35). Though all ITU patients were interviewed in the first year of the study, for logistical reasons interviews in the remaining four years were limited to cardiac arrest survivors, those who came so close to death that their survival was unexpected, and spontaneous OBErs and NDErs (36). Consistent with van Lommel and colleagues' findings, about 18% of the cardiac arrest survivors reported NDEs; about 5% of them reported OBEs (37-38). In the entirety of Sartori's 5-year study, 15 patients reported NDEs or NDE-like experiences, and 8 OBEs were reported (37-38). Nevertheless, Sartori reports, this study also yielded negative results, as "not all of the patients rose high enough out of their bodies and some reported viewing the situation from a position opposite to where the symbols were situated" (Sartori 38).

Griffith (Illinois, 2000);Jonathan D.

Spence,  (Viking, 1999); and, ed.

in the corners of hospital rooms in which near-death episodes were most likely to occur.... in such a way as to be visible only from a vantage point of looking down from the ceiling. No living person was to know the exact content of the stimuli, thus rendering the design double-blind. Once the patient was resuscitated from a near-death episode in one of the "marked" rooms, knowledge of the content of the visual stimulus would be assessed (Holden and Joesten 46).

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Twemlow, Stuart W., Glen O. Gabbard, and Lolafaye Coyne. "A Multivariate Method for the Classification of Preexisting Near-Death Conditions." . Vol. 2, No. 2 (December 1982): 132-139.

Fechek, (Greenwood, 1953); andJames V.

Twemlow, Stuart W. and Glen O. Gabbard. "The Influence of Demographic/Psychological Factors and Preexisting Conditions on the Near-Death Experience." . Vol. 15, No. 3 (1984): 223-235.

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Stevenson, Ian, Emily Williams Cook, and Nicholas McClean-Rice. "Are Persons Reporting 'Near-Death Experiences' Really Near Death? A Study of Medical Records." . Vol. 20, No. 1 (1989-90): 45-54.

Schall, (Rowman & Littlefield, 1998).

Serdahely, William. "Variations from the Prototypic Near-Death Experience: The 'Individually Tailored' Hypothesis." . Vol. 13, No. 3 (Spring 1995): 185-196.

Recommended Reading:Marsilius of Padua, , ed.

Rodabough, Tillman. "Near-Death Experiences: An Examination of the Supporting Data and Alternative Explanations." . Vol. 9, No. 2 (1985): 95-113.

Nederman (Cambridge, 1993) andAlan Gewirth, (Ayer, 1979).

Ring, Kenneth. "Solving the Riddle of Frightening Near-Death Experiences: Some Testable Hypotheses and a Perspective Based on ." . Vol. 13, No. 1 (Fall 1994): 5-23.