27/06/2004 - Added the historical essay, and the and Pages.

Since the late 1980s, and especially the late 1990s, a variety ofwriters working in philosophy of mind have focused on the fundamentalcharacter of consciousness, ultimately a phenomenological issue. Doesconsciousness always and essentially involve self-consciousness, orconsciousness-of-consciousness, as Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre held(in verying detail)? If so, then every act of consciousness eitherincludes or is adjoined by a consciousness-of-that-consciousness. Doesthat self-consciousness take the form of an internal self-monitoring?If so, is that monitoring of a higher order, where each act ofconsciousness is joined by a further mental act monitoring the baseact? Or is such monitoring of the same order as the base act, a properpart of the act without which the act would not be conscious? A varietyof models of this self-consciousness have been developed, someexplicitly drawing on or adapting views in Brentano, Husserl, andSartre. Two recent collections address these issues: David WoodruffSmith and Amie L. Thomasson (editors), Phenomenology and Philosophy ofMind (2005), and Uriah Kriegel and Kenneth Williford (editors),Self-Representational Approaches to Consciousness (2006).

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In short, consciousness is embodied (in the world), and equally bodyis infused with consciousness (with cognition of the world).

The analysis of consciousness and intentionality is central tophenomenology as appraised above, and Searle’s theory of intentionalityreads like a modernized version of Husserl’s. (Contemporary logicaltheory takes the form of stating truth conditions for propositions, andSearle characterizes a mental state’s intentionality by specifying its“satisfaction conditions”). However, there is an importantdifference in background theory. For Searle explicitly assumes thebasic worldview of natural science, holding that consciousness is partof nature. But Husserl explicitly brackets that assumption, and laterphenomenologists—including Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty—seem to seek a certain sanctuary for phenomenology beyond thenatural sciences. And yet phenomenology itself should be largelyneutral about further theories of how experience arises, notably frombrain activity.


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In the early 1970s Thomas Nagel argued in “What Is It Like toBe a Bat?” (1974) that consciousness itself—especiallythe subjective character of what it is like to have a certain type ofexperience—escapes physical theory. Many philosophers pressedthe case that sensory qualia—what it is like to feel pain, tosee red, etc.—are not addressed or explained by a physicalaccount of either brain structure or brain function. Consciousness hasproperties of its own. And yet, we know, it is closely tied to thebrain. And, at some level of description, neural activities implementcomputation.

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In the late 1960s and 1970s the computer model of mind set in, andfunctionalism became the dominant model of mind. On this model, mind isnot what the brain consists in (electrochemical transactions in neuronsin vast complexes). Instead, mind is what brains do: their function ofmediating between information coming into the organism and behaviorproceeding from the organism. Thus, a mental state is a functionalstate of the brain or of the human (or animal) organism. Morespecifically, on a favorite variation of functionalism, the mind is acomputing system: mind is to brain as software is to hardware; thoughtsare just programs running on the brain’s “wetware”. Sincethe 1970s the cognitive sciences—from experimental studies ofcognition to neuroscience—have tended toward a mix ofmaterialism and functionalism. Gradually, however, philosophers foundthat phenomenological aspects of the mind pose problems for thefunctionalist paradigm too.

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René Descartes, in his epoch-making Meditations on FirstPhilosophy (1641), had argued that minds and bodies are two distinctkinds of being or substance with two distinct kinds of attributes ormodes: bodies are characterized by spatiotemporal physical properties,while minds are characterized by properties of thinking (includingseeing, feeling, etc.). Centuries later, phenomenology would find, withBrentano and Husserl, that mental acts are characterized byconsciousness and intentionality, while natural science would find thatphysical systems are characterized by mass and force, ultimately bygravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum fields. Where do we findconsciousness and intentionality in thequantum-electromagnetic-gravitational field that, by hypothesis, orderseverything in the natural world in which we humans and our minds exist?That is the mind-body problem today. In short, phenomenology by anyother name lies at the heart of the contemporary mind-body problem.