Interms of traffic crashes, "in general, motorized urban traffic and pedestrian accidentsform a higher proportion of accidents in developing countries than in developedcountries." For example, "in 1993, an estimated 885,000 people died in trafficaccidents," and "the majority of these deaths were in developing countries."In addition to the "huge amounts of energy" transportation consumes, "motor vehiclesproduce more air pollution than any other human activity." In city centers, where trafficcongestion levels are high, "traffic can be responsible for as much as 90 to 95 percentof the ambient carbon monoxide levels, 80 to 90 percent of nitrogen oxides andhydrocarbons, and a large portion of the particulates, posing a major threat to humanhealth and natural resources." Lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasolinealso cause "an estimated 80 to 90 percent of lead in ambient air." In response to thehealth threat posed by lead, most developed countries have reduced the lead contentin gasoline, but in most developing countries, "ambient lead levels greatly exceed thehealth standard." These emissions have a global as well as local impact: "Thetransportation sector is the most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions--that is, emissions of chemicals that have the potential to contribute to global warming."STRATEGIES AND CONCLUSIONSThe authors emphasized that "urban areas in developing countries require newapproaches to addressing their transportation problems." These countries must makethese approaches "city specific," even for cities within the same country.
Development of Strategy The aim of the urban renewal programme is; to create sustainable structures of economic regeneration, to encourage business development and diversification, and to find solutions to serious social problems caused by the crisis situations that are common in many depressed urban areas....
'People and Plans: Essays on Urban Problems and ..
The mobility and affordability advantages of thesevehicles are diminished by their pollution disadvantages, notably high levels of "carbonmonoxide and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions."An increase in public transit systems seldom accompanies this growth in population,mainly because of high capital costs and "urban form." A city's form "greatly influencesand is influenced by travel patterns (the classical land use-transportation cycle)." Theauthors noted "that the development of urban form has been one of the root causes ofmany transportation problems throughout the world." The rapid, unplanned, anduncoordinated growth of cities has dispersed their populations, with more peoplemoving from the city centers to their "urban periphery." This dispersion reduces accessto public transportation and makes the cost of building and maintaining new publictransportation systems prohibitive.